Out line


The aim of this research and its significance

1. This research is aimed to find what encourage/discourages Japanese junior high and high school students in speaking English.

2. It is important to know the main causes of speaking problems for Japanese students who don’t want to speak in English classes.

Current situation of EFL learners in Japan

Research questions

1. Why Japanese students are reluctant to speak English in classroom?

2. What is effective way to encourage the students to speak English?


1. Major findings

2. Suggestion


1. Summary of research project

2. Further research

Synthesis Paper

Learning Environment for Japanese EFL Learners

Why Japanese EFL learners in junior high and high school are reluctant to speak English? What is effective way to encourage the students to speak English? These are questions which many Japanese English teachers have and try to answer. However, they have not found certain ideas or ways to solve those problems. In this paper, the reason why Japanese students are reluctant to speak English is discussed to make an opinion to the questions which were mentioned in top of this paper, and it can be concluded that learning environment is the biggest concern for the students.

              Then, it is necessary to explore the characteristics of Japanese students. To come to the point, Japanese students are very shy. In other word, they tend to go with the flow. It is one of main characteristics of Japanese people, and it sometimes help them when they need to cooperate. However, when it comes to English classroom, it works for students as an unpleasant factor, and obstruct their speaking. Nubia Patricia Carrero Pérez. (2016), shows EFL learners’ behavior in task based learning (TBL). In that paper, the participants were more relaxed in task based class because they don’t care about grammar or accuracy. It indicates that anxiety is one of main problem for EFL leaners. Cutrone, P. (2009) shows Japanese EFL learners’ fear for speaking in English. In that paper, it is mentioned that some of the learners have cited their fear of making mistakes as the greatest cause of their anxiety in the language classroom. Also, it is shown that teachers’ negative demeanor affect students mind. Mohammad J. R. (2018) shows that more willingness to speak (WTS) leads to a better speaking ability, and it means how it is important to make easy atmosphere to speak.

              In conclusion, making relaxed atmosphere or easy environment to speak English will be help for Japanese EFL leaners because they tend to follow others, and reducing their anxiety will make them more positive to speak English.

Annotated Bibliography 4


Cutrone, P. (2009). Overcoming Japanese EFL Learners’ Fear of Speaking. NAOSITE: Nagasaki University’s Academic Output SITE Language Studies Working Papers,1,pp.55-63;2009.



This journal is aimed to reserch language learning motivation and anxiety. In the third section, it discusses how language anxiety affects Japanese EFL learners when they need to perform oral tasks. It also discusses about why are Japanese EFL learners reluctant to speak. Moreover, it discusses the shyness of Japanese people and their culture.


This journal is very useful because it discusses a lot about what are objects for Japanese EFL learners. It contains many informations about the cause of language anxiety, and they have to do with my quriosity.


This journal was very interasting because it has many important informations that are related to my reserch question. The knowledges may help not only the reserch but also my teaching in the future. It was good for me to find this journal.

Annotated Bibliography 3


Cennet A. (2018). Turkish EFL Learners’ Willingness to Communicate in L2 and Motivation. Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 6, No. 11a; November 2018 ISSN 2324-805X E-ISSN 2324-8068 Published by Redfame Publishing.



The present study mainly looked into the relationship between L2WTC and motivation. It mainly focused on if there is a predicting effect of learners’ motivation on their WTC. The results of the study showed that high motivation would influence participants’ willingness to communicate.


This journal will help me in my reserch because it proves high motivation would influence L2 learners’ willingness to communicate. Houever it didin’t mention to causes of motivation or demotivation.


This journal contains evidence for positive relationship between motivation and willingness to communicate. It was related to my quriosity, but it was not what I wanted to know.

Annotated Bibliography 2


Nubia Patricia Carrero Pérez. (2016). Effects of Tasks on Spoken Interaction and Motivation in English Language Learners. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal. ISSN 1692-5777. No.13. (July – December) 2016. pp. 34-55.



In this study, the author explored the effects of tasks on students’ spoken interaction in English and motivation towards speaking English in the classroom. As a result of a series of task based learning (TBL)/ task based learning and teaching (TBLT) and investigations, the perticipants significantly promoted their English speaking skill, and it was found that tasks motivate L2 learners. The journal reveals that every student wanted to participate in tasks without feeling ashamed.


This journal is useful because it has one of the answer of my reserch questions: what is effective ways to encourage japanese students to speak English. TBL/TBLT can encourage English learners to speak in the target language because they don’t have to consider grammar or pronunciations when they communicate in English. Environment or situations without shame may help L2 learners.


This journal was interesting because its reserch question is related to my quriosity. It will help me to find what I want to know: what encourages/discourages students to speak English.

Annotated Bibliography


Mohammad J. R. (2018). Willingness to speak English among foreign language learners: A causal model. Riasati, Cogent Education (2018), 5: 1455332

DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2018.1455332


The present study is an attempt to investigate the extent to which Iranian EFL learners are willing to speak English in language classrooms. Moreover, the relationship between willingness to speak (WTS) and language learning anxiety, language learning motivation, and self-perceived speaking ability is sought. Furthermore, the study seeks the extent to which WTS contributes to an improvement in the learners’ speaking ability.


This article is useful because it has the relationship between WTS and language learning anxiety, language learning motivation, and self-persieved speaking ability. I can use these informations to find what is effective ways to encourage japanese students to speak English.


This journal will help me to get informations about willingness to speak among foreign language learners. I want to know the effective way to encourage japanese junior high school students and high school students to speak English, so this article is related to my quriosity.

A List of Sources

1.Willingness to Speak English among Foreign Language Learners: A Causal Model

2.Using a Tablet Computer for EFL Positive Self-Review: Increases in Self-Determination Theory-Based Learning Motives

3.Willingness to Communicate, Interest, Motives to Communicate with the Instructor, and L2 Speaking: A Focus on the Role of Age and Gender

4.A Qualitative Inquiry on EFL Learning Demotivation and Resilience: A Study of Primary and Secondary EFL Students in South Korea

5.Using Online Videos to Improve Speaking Abilities of EFL Learne


Explanation of your theme

 This book is about my experiences of learning English. It contains both positive memories and negative memories. The memories are described in forms of poetry and I can see some difficulties of learning foreign language among 10 poems. I noticed that I tend to choose hard or tough experiences for the themes of poem. I guess this is because such negative memories remain longer than positive memories. However, I also choose some positive memories. I choose them because they motivated me to learn English. They are precious memories for me. I hope that they will help me to learn through reminding and describing them. 2;

Back ground information


 The first poem describes my first experience that I could read Alphabets outside of elementary school. I guess it occurred when I was a fourth or fifth grade student. I learned Alphabets and how to use them in a computer class so I wanted to use the knowledge. One day, my mother and I was going to go supermarket to buy necessities. On the way to the supermarket, we can see a sport shop on the right. Then, I found the logo on a big advertising tower outside the window. I tried to read them and asked her. When I heard the answer, I was excited and thought it was interesting.


 This poem describes an experience that sometime encourages me to learn English. It makes me to study English but it is not good memory. When I was a eleventh grade student, I visited Tokyo with my family. At Ueno Park, we were spoken to by two foreigners who seems to be Chinese and they asked us how to go Ueno Station. At first, I thought I could explain the way which lead the foreigners to Ueno Station because I had learnt how to tell it, but I couldn’t. I couldn’t remember the expressions to tell the way so my guidance was so bad. I was sure that it didn’t make sense. I apologized them and told them the direction. I don’t want to experience such things.